Criminal Trial and Appeal Procedures in India

Legal Procedures
Criminal Procedure Code

The Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) regulates the process of investigation and trial of criminal offences in India. 

Criminal Law Appeal and Trial Procedures in India

The Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) regulates the process of investigation and trial of criminal offences in India. The CrPC was enacted in 1973 and has been amended several times since then. The code lays down the procedure to be followed by the police, public prosecutors and courts while dealing with criminal cases.  

The police are responsible for investigating crimes and gathering evidence. They must follow the principles of natural justice while conducting investigations. The public prosecutor is responsible for deciding whether to file a charge sheet or not, and for conducting the prosecution in court. The court is responsible for hearing the case and passing judgement.  

The CrPC contains detailed provisions on arrest, search, seizure, bail, trial and sentencing. It also lays down special procedures to be followed in cases involving terrorism or offences against state security. 

Criminal trials in India go through different stages before the final judgement is delivered by the court. 

Stage 1: Filing of First Information Report (FIR)

The Filing of the First Information Report is the process of notifying law enforcement about a crime. The report is filed by the victim or by a witness to the crime. The report is filed with the police department in the jurisdiction where the crime occurred. The purpose of the report is to initiate an investigation into the crime. The filing of a First Information Report is important because it allows law enforcement to investigate crimes and to apprehend criminals. It also allows victims of crimes to seek justice. The process of filing a First Information Report can be complicated, and it is important to have an understanding of what needs to be done. A victim or witness should contact the police department in the jurisdiction where the crime occurred as soon as possible after the crime has been committed. 

Stage 2: Arrest of Accused

An individual who has been accused of a crime can apply for bail or anticipatory bail. If the person is granted bail, they will be released from custody until their trial. If the person is not granted bail, they will remain in custody until their trial.  

Bail is a security that is given to the court to ensure that the accused will appear in court when required. The amount of bail depends on the severity of the crime and the flight risk posed by the accused.  

Anticipatory bail is a type of bail that can be granted before an arrest has been made. This type of bail is usually granted when there is a fear that the accused will try to flee or will intimidate witnesses. 

An accused in India can apply for bail at the time of their arrest or anytime before their trial. The purpose of bail is to ensure that the accused appears in court when required. If the accused is not granted bail, they may be incarcerated until their trial. In some cases, an accused may be released on anticipatory bail if they have reason to believe they will be arrested. This allows the accused to remain free until their trial, provided they meet certain conditions. 

Stage 3: Filing of the charge sheet by the police. 

When the police file a charge sheet in a criminal trial, it is the first stage in the process. The charge sheet is a document that lays out the evidence that the police have collected against the defendant. It also includes information about the defendant such as their name and age. The charge sheet is filed with the court, and the court then decides whether to accept or reject it. If the court accepts the chargesheet, it sets a date for the first hearing, called an arraignment hearing. At this hearing, the defendant will be informed of the charges against them and will be given an opportunity to plead guilty or not guilty. If the defendant pleads not guilty, then a trial will be scheduled. 

Stage 4: Framing of charges

Charges framing in a criminal trial can be a very important issue. The prosecution has the initial burden of proof to show that the defendant is guilty of the crime charged. This is done by presenting evidence to the court. The prosecutor will also typically make an opening statement at the beginning of the trial, which outlines what they believe happened and why the defendant is guilty. The defense attorney then has an opportunity to present their case, which may include trying to poke holes in the prosecution’s case or presenting evidence that suggests that the defendant is innocent. In the end, it is up to the jury to decide whether or not to believe the evidence and find the defendant guilty. 

If found guilty, the accused can be sentenced at this stage itself. Finally, there is an appeal stage where either party can appeal to a higher court. 

Stage 5: Examination of Witnesses

In a criminal trial, the prosecution presents its case first, followed by the defense. The prosecution must prove each element of the crime beyond a reasonable doubt. The defendant does not have to present any evidence, but may choose to do so. Once both sides have presented their cases, the jury or judge will decide whether the defendant is guilty or not guilty.  

The chief examination is the prosecution’s opportunity to present its case and to introduce evidence. The prosecutor calls witnesses and asks them questions about what they saw or heard. The prosecutor also can introduce physical evidence, such as weapons or documents.  

The cross examination is the opportunity for the defense to ask questions of the prosecution’s witnesses. The defense can try to show that the witness is lying or that he or she is mistaken about what happened. The defense may also try to cast doubt on the prosecution’s evidence. 

Stage 6: Final Arguments

The final stage of a criminal trial in India is the argument stage. This is when the prosecution and defense present their arguments to the court. The prosecution typically presents its argument first, followed by the defense. 

The prosecution’s argument is based on the evidence that has been presented during the trial. The prosecutor will try to show that the defendant is guilty of the crime charged. The prosecutor may also argue that the defendant should be punished if found guilty. 

The defense’s argument typically focuses on trying to disprove the prosecution’s case (Crpc). The defense may argue that the defendant is not guilty, or that he should be given a lesser punishment if found guilty. The defense may also present new evidence during this stage of the trial. 

Stage 7: Conviction or Release of Accused by the Trial Court

In a criminal trial, the verdict of the court is either guilty or not guilty. If the defendant is found guilty, they may be sentenced to prison or other penalties. If the defendant is found not guilty, they are free to go. The verdict of the court is based on evidence presented in court and the judge’s interpretation of that evidence. 

Criminal Appeal

A criminal appeal can be filed against the order passed by the trial court under section 417 of Criminal Procedure Code (Crpc). The aggrieved party can challenge the order and seek relief from a higher court. The appeal is filed in the form of a petition and is heard by a bench of judges. The grounds for challenging an order can be improper procedure, lack of jurisdiction or incorrect interpretation of law. The appellant has to convince the court that the order deserves to be set aside. If the appeal is successful, the order is quashed and the case is sent back to the trial court for further proceedings.

Legal Disclaimer: The information contained in this blog post is for general information and educational purposes only. Nothing contained in this blog post should be construed as legal advice from The Aran Law Firm or the individual author, nor is it intended to be a substitute for legal counsel on any subject matter.

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